Munroe, (1993) defines leadership as the ability to inspire others to become and fulfill themselves.
Leadership by the definition is the capacity to influence, inspire, rally, direct, encourage, motivate, induce, move, mobilize and activate others to pursue a common goal or purpose while maintaining commitment, momentum, confidence and courage.
“Leadership is the orginising and coordinating of resources, energies and relationship in a productive context for an intended result”.
In its simplest form, leadership is the managing of a managers towards a common-goal.
An important ingredient of leadership function is the ability to draw the best out from other people and inspire them to maximize their potentials and that of the resources they manage. It should be noted that the purest form of leadership is influenced through inspiration. In short, the greatest and the most important aspect of leadership is inspiration.
Types of Leadership
Three types or styles of leadership are most common. Each involves a different amount of reciprocity and a different relationship between leaders and followers:
1. Trustee Leadership : The term ” trustee” here describes the leadership operated by a person or a group of person’s who believe that their superior skills give them the authority to lead as they wish.
Leaders who operate this feel they know what is in the best interest of their followers and they act accordingly. In a trustee relationship, followers often give their loyalty to leaders because these leaders are able to make things work.
2. Broker Leadership: This type involves a great deal of interaction between a leader and followers. They often have good’ understanding of their state, a necessity for their election to office.
3. Delegated Leadership : Here leaders often respond directly to the desire of their followers. People or groups who lead as delegates listen as carefully as possible to followers. Thus, they act in strict accordance with followers’ goals (Judith G et al 1979).
Who is a Leader?
There is different between “Leadership” and the “Leader”. Munroe (1993) defines the leader as “the designated position and the individual assuming the position, accepting the responsibility and accountability that accompany the designated position”.
As Myles rightly put it ” Leadership on the other hand, is the function of designated position and the exercise of the responsibilities involved in the position”. The understanding of the differences is necessary in order to have a working definition of both.
A leader is one who influences others to follow after him to a common cause or purpose. A leader possesses the character which inspire their confidence. In short, he is a confidence servant.
What Makes a Leader?
Leaders are made and not born. Everyone has the capacity and potential to become leader. There are distinct characteristics that make one a leader and they are also common to leadership. They are:
- Purpose : The fundamental key to becoming a leader is the discovering and capturing of a sense of purpose. Purpose is the original intent or reason for the creation or existence of a thing. The leader has a clear, guiding vision that encourages persistence; even in trying periods.
- Passion : This is a deep controlling desire that makes the leader’s commitment to the set goals. The strong love which makes the leader does what he do to achieve the desired goals.
- Integrity : This means sincerity, honest, truthfulness, self-knownledge and maturity. The leader must truly know himself, his strengths and weakness, what he wants to do and why he wants to do it. This will help him to experience significant success. Maturity is also important because every leaders needs to have experience and growth through following. He needs to be dedicated, observant and capable of working with others. As a result, he can inculcate these qualities in his followers. Integrity is a basic key to become a leader.
- Trust : Trust is a product of time and integrity. Trust can not be acquired. It must be earned. Leaders are individuals whose characters have been tested, proven and established as being faithful and trustworthy. Trustworthiness is a product of character and competence. That is, who you are and what you can do. Trustworthiness is the foundation of trust, to become and effective leader you must earn the trust and confidence of others, most especially those you lead.
- Curiosity and Daring : To a leader, life should be an adventure. Leaders are willing to challenge traditions and experiment with new ideas. A leader must be willing to take risk, try new things and challenge conventions. He does not worry about failure, knowing he will learn from it.
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The Roles or Duties of a Leader
- Realistic Objective: The leader must establish goals that are realistic in the light of the organization or community or state.
- Provide the Necessary Resources : If the goals are to be reached, leaders must supply the proper tools, equipment and train man power to make the attainment of objectives possible.
- Make the Expectations Known : Through formal and informal communication, leaders must take known to followers precisely what is expected from them, in order to satisfy organizational or state goals.
- Shows Consideration : The position and concern of the followers must be important to the leaders knowing that without the cooperation of the followers, much nay not be achieved.
- Delegated Authority and Invite Participation : In order to motivate and challenge followers and to train them to assume greater responsibility, leaders must delegate some if their functions. This can enhance followed morale and ease some of the leader’s burden.
- Lead by Example: They must be practitioners of what they preach. They must be a living examples.
- Co-ordination : The leader should co-ordinate effectively the affairs of the group, for positive result.
- Smooth and Orderly Transition of Power : The leader must ensure smooth and orderly transition of power. This will help promote the faith and respect of followers in the polity.
- Inspires Loyalty : Leaders must inspire loyalty of the followers within the community or the state. Thus, they help to ensure the patriotism of followers.
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Qualities of A Good Leader
Whenever there is a good leadership there must be a good followership. Good leaders seems to have special wisdom for getting others to follow them and to do what they want done. Although a good leader can be known and recognized by others, yet we cannot easily ascertain the traits that makes a good leader. By observing outstanding leaders there are distinct qualities that most of them possess.
1. A Desire to Excel : A good leader is never content with being second rate or mediocre. He always wants to be out in front. He is the individual who is motivated by hard work to archive success.
2. A Sense of Responsibility : A good leader is never afraid to accept obligation from others. He is always willing to discharge any responsibility he assumes.
3. Communication : A good leader needs to be able to communicate messages and orders accurately and clearly to his followers. If he lacks this ability he us not worth much.
4. Critics : A good leader should take and welcome constructive criticism, as this will help him check his excesses, which can lead to his failure and total fall.
5. A Capacity For Work : Good leaders see work as part of them. They are always willing to accept the demands of leadership. That is, long hours of hard work.
6. A Drive For Good Human Resources : Good leaders are always involved with their followers; studying and analyzing their needs and demands, with a view to solving them.
7. A sense of Integrity : A good leader mist have a high sense of integrity. A leader who succeeds has to be honest with himself and with his followers. Lack of honesty will inadvertently force a leader out of his position.