Define pressure groups and explain their mode of operation

A pressure group is defined as organised
groups which influence government decisions socially and economically without contesting elections for the purpose of controlling governmental powers.

 MODE OF OPERATION 

  • THROUGH
    MASS MEDIA:
    Pressure groups influence government policy
    through the mass media like Radio,
    Television, Newspapers, Press Conference
    etc. in which they highlight their problems or make special appeal to
    government. This is an effective method
    in mobilising public opinion.
  •  DIALOGUE: This is a formal discussion between representatives
    of government and pressure groups. If the discussion
    fails, then confrontation is inevitable.
  •  LOBBYING: Pressure groups attempt to lobby influential
    officials of government e.g the legislature. Lobbying is an effective strategy in democratic countries.
  •  PRESSURE
    MOUNTED ON THE EXECUTIVE: Pressure groups mount pressure on the executive not to sign into law bills that are seen as unhealthy. Such
    bills may not produce something good
    for them or for the public.
  •  ULTIMATUM: Ultimatum comes up after different
    opportunities for dialogue have
    been exhausted without result. It is a condition issued by pressure groups to either the government
    or employer and failure may attract unhealthy
    situation.
  •  STRIKE
    ACTION: This is also known as boycott. Pressure groups
    may embark on strike action. It is always the last option after all effort of reconciliation and methods have
    failed. Students in higher institutions
    of learning can equally embark on boycott of lectures for the same purpose. 
  • DEMONSTRATIONS: This could be peaceful or violent. Pressure
    groups adopt these methods to mobilise support from
    members of the public.
  •  CONSULTATIONS: Most of the policies made by government are
    done based on consultations with some pressure
    groups.
  •  WORKING RELATIONSHIP WITH
    POLITICAL PARTY: This is done in order to have its
    programmes became a major concern to the party, if election result is in
    their favour.
  •  MEMBERSHIP OF INTERNATIONAL UNIONS: They join international groups as
    a way of attracting international sympathy. For instance, the Nigerian Labour Congress is a member of the organisation of African
    Trade Union.
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