Briefly describe the pericardium

Introduction: the pericardium is a double-walled fibroserous sac that encloses the heart and the root of the great vessels.
Location: middle mediastinum posterior to the body of the sternum and 2nd to 6th costal cartilages and anterior T5 and T8 vertebra.
Shape: conical in shape
Content: heart and pericardium cavity
Division: it is made up of two parts:
a. Fibrous pericardium
b. Serous pericardium
A. fibrous pericardium: it is a strong external layer of the pericardium. It is tough and conical. It protects the heart against sudden overfilling. Its  apex is pierced by the aorta, pulmonary trunk and superior vena cava
Attachment: its base rests on and is fused with the central tendon of the diaphragm.
Anteriorly it is attached to the sternum by the sternopericardial ligament. It is also fused with the adventitia of the diaphragm.
Surface marking: the fibrous pericardium extends 1-1.5cm to the right of the sternum and 5-7.5cm to the left of the median plane at the level of the 5th intercostal space
B. Serous pericardium: consists of two layers;
I. Parietal pericardium, which is fused to the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium.
II. Visceral pericardium, which is reflected onto the heart where it forms the epicardium, the external layer of the heart wall.
Arterial supply: these are by the pericardiacophrenic and musculophrenic arteries
Venous drainage: veins drain to the azygos system of veins
Nerve supply: these are from the vagus and phrenic nerves and the sympathetic trunks.
Clinical correlates: inflammation of the pericardium (pericarditis) causes severe sternal pain and produces pericardial effusion.

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