Anatomy

The thoracic cage

The thoracic cage is formed by the vertebral column behind, the ribs and intercostal spaces on either side and the sternum and costal cartilages in front. Above, it communicates through the ‘thoracic inlet’ with the root of the neck; below, it is separated from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm (Fig. 1). The thoracic vertebrae …

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The thorax

Surface anatomy and surface markings of the thorax. The experienced clinician spends much of his working life relating the surface anatomy of his patients to their deep structures (Fig. 1; see also  Figs. 11 and 22). The following bony prominences can usually be palpated in the living subject (corresponding vertebral levels are given in brackets): …

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List the anomalies of the urinary system and explain the embryological basis of three of them

Introduction: the urinary system begins to develop at the beginning of the fourth week. The kidneys and ureters are mesodermal in origin, while the urinary bladder and urethra are endodermal. The kidneys first develop in the pelvis and then migrate to the abdomen. Developmental abnormalities. 1. Congenital polycystic kidney 2. Renal a genesis. 3. Horse …

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Describe the changes in fetal circulation at birth and the possible associated congenital anomalies

Introduction: changes occurring in the vascular system at birth are caused by the cessation of the placental blood flow and the beginning of lung respiration. The following occur at birth: 1. Closure of the umbilical arteries. 2. Closure of the umbilical vein and ductus venous. 3. Closure of the doctus arteriosus. 4. Closure of the …

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Discuss the descent of the testis and the anomalies inve

Introduction: the testis begin to develop during the fifth week of embryonic life. It develops in the abdominal region and by the end of the second month the testis  and the mesonephros are attached to the posterior abdominal wall by the urinogenital mesentery. Descent of the testis: the gubernaculums testis, a mesenchymal strand, extends from …

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Describe the development of the uterus and vagina

Introduction: the paramesonephric or mullerian duct develops into the uterine tubes, uterus and the proximal part of the vagina. The paramesonephric duct is divided into three parts: a. A cranial vertical part. It opens into the coelomic cavity. b. A horizontal part, which crosses the mesonephric duct. c. A caudal part, which fuses with the …

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Describe the development of the uterus and vagina

Introduction: the paramesonephric or mullerian duct develops into the uterine tubes, uterus and the proximal part of the vagina. The paramesonephric duct is divided into three parts: a. A cranial vertical part. It opens into the coelomic cavity. b. A horizontal part, which crosses the mesonephric duct. c. A caudal part, which fuses with the …

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Describe the development and derivatives of the pharyngeal pouches

Introduction:  the human embryo has five pairs of pharyngeal pouches. The last one is atypical and therefore considered as part of the fourth. The epithelial endodermal lining of the pouches gives rise to a number of important organs. First pouch: this form a stalk-like diverticulum, the tubotympanic recess, which comes in contact with the epithelium …

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