List the anomalies of the urinary system and explain the embryological basis of three of them

Introduction: the urinary system begins to develop at the beginning of the fourth week. The kidneys and ureters are mesodermal in origin, while the urinary bladder and urethra are endodermal. The kidneys first develop in the pelvis and then migrate to the abdomen.
Developmental abnormalities.
1. Congenital polycystic kidney
2. Renal a genesis.
3. Horse shoe kidney.
4. Ectopic kidney
5. Duplication of ureters.
6. Non-rotation or abnormal rotation of kidney
7. Pelvic kidney
8. Accessory renal arteries
9. Ectopic uretic orifice.
10. Extrophy of the bladder
11. Urachal fistula, sinus and cysts.
12. Hypospodias and epispadias.
Horse shoe kidney: this results when two kidneys are so close together that their lower poles fuse. The horseshoe kidney is usually located at the level of the lower lumbar vertebra because its ascent is prevented by the root of the inferior mesentric artery.
Duplication of the ureters: this results from the ureteric bud giving off a double metanephric duct so that two ureters may develop on either or both sides. The ureters may fuse into a single duct anywhere along their course or open separately into the bladder.
Extrophy of the bladder: this abnormality occurs due to lack of mesodermal migration into regions between umbilicus and genital tubercle. It leads to exposure if the bladder mucosa.

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