In those days, pilots were considered the most well-trained professionals, so military fliers were first in line to go to space. More recently, people from a wide range of professional backgrounds — doctors, scientists, and even teachers — have trained to live and work in near-Earth orbit. Even so, those selected to go to space must meet high standards for physical condition and have the proper type of education and training. Whether they come from the U.S., China, Russia, Japan, or any other country with space interests, astronauts are required to be thoroughly prepared for the missions they undertake in a safe and professional manner.
Physical and Psychological Requirements for Astronauts
Astronauts must be in top physical condition and each country’s space program has health requirements for its space travelers. A good candidate must have the ability to endure the rigors of lift-off and to function in weightlessness. All astronauts, including pilots, commanders, mission specialists, science specialists, or payload managers, must be at least 147 centimeters tall, have good visual acuity, and normal blood pressure. Beyond that, there is no age limit. Most astronaut trainees are between the ages of 25 and 46, although older people have also flown to space later in their careers.
In the early days, only trained pilots were permitted to go to space. More recently, missions to space have emphasized different qualifications, such as the ability to cooperate with others in closed environments. People who go to space are usually self-confident risk-takers, adept at stress management and multitasking. On Earth, astronauts are usually required to perform various public relations duties, such as speaking to the public, working with other professionals, and sometimes even testifying before government officials. So, astronauts who can relate well to many different kinds of people are seen as valuable team members.
Educating an Astronaut
Spacefarers from all countries are required to have college educations, along with professional experience in their fields as a prerequisite to joining a space agency. Pilots and commanders are still expected to have extensive flying experience whether in commercial or military flight. Some come from test-pilot backgrounds.
Often, astronauts have a background as scientists and many have high-level degrees, like Ph.Ds. Others have military training or space industry expertise. Regardless of their background, once an astronaut is accepted into a country’s space program, he or she goes through rigorous training to actually live and work in space.
Most astronauts learn to fly aircraft (if they don’t already know how). They also spend a lot of time working in “mockup” trainers, particularly if they’re going to be working aboard the International Space Station. Astronauts flying aboard the Soyuz rockets and capsules train those mockups and learn to speak Russian. All astronaut candidates learn the rudiments of first aid and medical care, in case of emergencies and train to use specialized instruments for safe extravehicular activity.
It’s not all trainers and mockups, however. Astronaut trainees spend a lot of time in the classroom, learning the systems they will work with, and the science behind the experiments they will conduct in space. Once an astronaut is chosen for a specific mission, he or she does intensive work learning its intricacies and how to make it work (or fix it if something goes wrong). The servicing missions for the Hubble Space Telescope, the construction work on the International Space Station, and many other activities in space were all made possible through very thorough and intense work by each astronaut involved, learning the systems and rehearsing their work for years ahead of their missions.
Physical Training for Space
The space environment is an unforgiving and unfriendly one. We’ve adapted to a “1G” gravitational pull here on Earth. Our bodies evolved to function in 1G. Space, however, is a microgravity regime, and so all the bodily functions that work well on Earth have to get used to being in a near-weightless environment. It’s physically difficult for astronauts at first, but they do acclimate and learn to move properly. Their training takes this into account. Not only do they train in the Vomit Comet, an airliner that is used to fly them in parabolic arcs to gain experience in weightlessness, but there are also neutral buoyancy tanks that allow them to simulate working in space environments. In addition, astronauts practice land survival skills, in the event that their flights don’t end with the smooth landings people are accustomed to seeing.
With the advent of virtual reality, NASA and other agencies have adopted immersive training using these systems. For example, astronauts can learn about the layout of the ISS and its equipment using VR headsets, and they can also simulate extravehicular activities. Some simulations take place in CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment) systems display visual cues on video walls. The important thing is for astronauts to learn their new environments both visually and kinesthetically before they ever leave the planet.
Future Training for Space
While most astronaut training occurs within agencies, there are specific companies and institutions that work with both military and civilian pilots and space travelers to get them ready for space. The advent of space tourism will open up other training opportunities for everyday people who want to go to space but aren’t necessarily planning to make a career of it. In addition, the future of space exploration will see commercial operations in space, which will require those workers to be trained, too. Regardless of who goes and why, space travel will remain a very delicate, dangerous, and challenging activity for both astronauts and tourists alike. Training will always be necessary if long-term space exploration and habitation is to grow.