explain the following concepts hedonism, Utilitarianism, Epicureanism and Eudemonism
Hedonism is a school of thought that argues that the pursuit of pleasure and intrinsic grids are the primary or most important goals of human life. A hedonist strives to maximize net pleasure (pleasure minus pain). However, upon finally gaining solid pleasure, happiness may remain stationary. In philosophy, hedonism is the theory that tends to emphasize that pleasure is the theory that pleasure is the sole of chief good in life and that the pursuit of it is the ideal aim of conduct.
On concluding this, I believe the said pleasure will be a mirage and no man under the sun is ever fulfilled with whatever they have and by nothing considering other people’s pain in getting one pleasure is a big problem on its own. However, there is no way a man will get a pleasurable life without coming face to face with pains on their path. Pleasure without pain is fallacy!
Utilitarianism: is one of the best known and most influential moral theories like other form of conservationism, its core idea is that whether actions are morally right or wrong depends on their effects. More specifically, the only effect of actions that are relevant are the good and bad result that they produce. A key point in this article concerns the distinction between individual action and types of actions. Utilitarians believe that the purpose of morality is to make life better by increasing the amount of good things (such as pleasure and happiness) in the world and decreasing the amount of bad things (such as pain and unhappiness).
Epicureanism: this is a system of philosophy that is mainly based on the teaching of the Greek philosopher, Epicurus . According to Ajibola (2002:79), is that pleasure is the supreme good and main goal of life. Pleasure here must not be taken to mean ‘unreasoned’ enjoyment or comfort, it is an intellectual pleasure, according to this school of thought, are preferred to sensual ones, which tend to disturb peace of mind. Epicurus believed that what he called “pleasure” was the greatest good, but that the way to attain such pleasure was to live modesty, to gain knowledge of the workings of the world, and to limit one’s desire.
Eudemonism: eudaimonia is often translated as “happiness” but that’s a bit misleading.
Eudaimonia comes from two Greek words:
Eu – good
Daimonia – soul or “self”. A difficult word to translate into English.
In the Greak philosophy, Eudaimonia means achieving the best conditions possible for a human being, in every sense – not only happiness, but virtue, morality, and a meaningful life. It was the ultimate goal of philosophy: to become better people – to fulfill our unique potential as human being. Aristotle wrote about the idea the most, and it was important to many Greak philosophers, from Socrates, the father of Greek philosophy, through to stoicism, a late – Greek philosophy.
You can achieve Eudaimonia, Aristotle argued, by working hard, cultivating your virtues and excelling at whatever tasks nature and circumstances come to you. However, Aristotle also wrote that living in a right kind of place and balancing your activities with wisdom are essential to achieving Eudaimonia as well/
If you are a parent, you should excel at raising your children.
In conclusion, the four theories came up with different ideas that one need to look at; that is to get a pleasurable life one need to consider the pains that others or oneself will encounter before achieving such because no man is embodiment of wisdom. To live a peaceful life that is void of trouble and also comfort with life we need to open our mind to knowledge and believe that life is a journey and no way to travel it without coming in contact with bendings. This bends are what customs, gods and supernatural being has destined with a man. All of the three theories was embedded in Eudamonism as Aristotle postulated and thus we have a better society.