WHAT ARE levels of organization in the human body

Over 1M Answers AvailableCategory: BiologyWHAT ARE levels of organization in the human body
Mark Moon asked 1 month ago

 

What are the levels of organization in order and define/explain each

1 Answers
Mark Moon answered 1 month ago

ORGANIZATIONAL LEVELS OF THE BODY:
there are about 8 levels of organisation in the human body; but at the lower levels of study; only five or six sometimes are talked about. it also varies with the text you are using some times; most anatomy textbooks will go as far as the atomic level while most biology texts will just sum it up at organelles. 
So; if we are to go with the biological organization of the human body, we’ll have: organelle, cell, tissue, organ, system, organism (some texts don’t add organism though)

  • ATOMS: Basic UNITS of all MATTER.
  • ELEMENTS: Each kind of ATOM. e.g. OXYGEN, HYDROGEN, NITROGEN, SULFUR, CARBON.
  • MOLECULE: Combination of TWO or MORE ATOMS. e.g. 02. A COMPOUND IS A MOLECULE containing atoms of MORE THAN ONE ELEMENT: e.g. H20, C02, PROTEIN, LIPID, CARBOHYDRATE
  • CELLS: Smallest INDEPENDENT UNITS of LIFE.
  • TISSUES: Group of SIMILAR CELLS that perform a SPECIFIC FUNCTION. THERE ARE FOUR TYPES OF TISSUES:
    1. EPITHELIAL TISSUE: Found in SKIN and LINING of ORGANS FUNCTION: PROTECTION, SECRETION, EXCRETION, ABSORPTION.
    2. CONNECTIVE TISSUE: found in many ORGANS. e.g.SKIN, BLOOD VESSELS FUNCTION: SUPPORT, REPAIR. (EX.) TENDONS, LIGAMENTS, FAT, CARTILAGE, BLOOD, BONE
    3. MUSCLE TISSUE: SKELETAL MUSCLE–in the LIMBS, FACE, ABDOMEN, ETC.; (VOLUNTARY) SMOOTH MUSCLE— in the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM, BLOOD VESSEL, UTERUS, ETC. IT IS INVOLUNTARY; CARDIAC MUSCLE–in the HEART. IT IS INVOLUNTARY
    4. NERVE TISSUE; Found in the BRAIN, SPINAL CORD, and NERVES; FUNCTION: responds to various STIMULI and transports NERVE IMPULSES from one area of the body to another.
  • ORGAN: Group of TWO or MORE KINDS of TISSUE bound together to form a structure (e.g. STOMACH, LIVER, SKIN.)
  • SYSTEM: A group of ORGANS with their tissues that work TOGETHER to perform a MAJOR FUNCTION.
    1. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM: Made of SKIN, NAILS, HAIR, SWEAT GLANDS and OIL GLANDS. Function: PROTECTION, REGULATE BODY TEMPERATURE CONTAINS SENSORY RECEPTORS.
    2. SKELETAL SYSTEM: Made of BONE and CARTILAGE. Function: SUPPORT BODY, PROTECT ORGANS,MANUFACTURE RED BLOOD CELLS, PROVIDE LEVEL MECHANISM FOR MOVEMENT.
    3. MUSCULAR SYSTEM (SKELETAL–SMOOTH–CARDIAC). Function: BODY MOVEMENT PRODUCE BODY HEAT.
    4. NERVOUS SYSTEM: Made of BRAIN–SPINAL CORD PERIPHERAL NERVES–SENSORY ORGANS. Function: REGULATES BODY ACTIVITIES, INITIATES ACTION OF MUSCLES.
    5. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: Made of DUCTLESS GLANDS. Function: SECRETE HORMONES.
    6. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: Made of HEART, BLOOD, BLOOD VESSELS. Function: PUMPS BLOOD THROUGH VESSELS, TRANSPORT OF GASES.
    7. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: Made up AIRWAYS and LUNGS. Function: BREATHING EXCHANGE OF GASES BETWEEN AIR and BLOOD.
    8. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: Made up of organs from MOUTH to ANUS and ACCESSORY STRUCTURES (LIVER, PANCREAS, ETC) Function: BREAK DOWN FOOD, REMOVE SOLID WASTE.
    9. URINARY SYSTEM: Made of KIDNEYS, URETERS, BLADDER, URETHRA. Function: ELIMINATE METABOLIC WASTES, REGULATE BLOOD PRESSURE, REGULATE WATER-SALT BALANCE.
    10. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: Made of OVARIES, TESTES, GERM 
      CELLS, ACCESSORY GLANDS and DUCTS. FUNCTION: REPRODUCTION.
    11.  LYMPHATIC SYSTEM: Made of LYMPH NODES, LYMPHATIC BLOOD VESSELS, TONSILS. Function: IMMUNE SYSTEM DEFENSE, FAT TRANSPORT
    12. IMMUNE SYSTEM: Made of LYMPHOCYTES (T AND B). FUNCTION: DEFENSE
  •  Organism – the complete human (the animal); the highest
    level of organization