Please can any one help me define fish pond? I will be glad if along with the definition you add a little detailed explanation
- A fish pond can be define as a controlled pond, artificial lake or reservoir that is stocked with fish and is used in aquaculture for fish farming or is used is used for recreational fishing or for ornamental purposes
- Good fish management begins with an understanding of pond’s physical, chemical and biological features .these three features determine the quality of fishing the pond can produce and the kinds of problems that may be encountered
- Ponds are most satisfactory when there is a complete and balanced food web in place. Starting at the top, this means that the plankton algae are present in sufficient quantity to feed some zooplankton. The zooplankton in return provides food for the smallest fish and aquatic insects. These in turn become prey for larger fish which finally may be taken.
Water quality is the first most important limiting factor in pond fish production. It is also the most difficult production factor to understand, predict and manage. Water is not just where the fish live. Its quality directly affets feed efficiency, growth rates, the fish’s health and survival. Most fish kills, disease outbreaks, poor growth, poor feed conservation efficiency and similar management problems are directly related to poor water quality.
Water quality refers to anything in the water be it physical, chemical or biological that affects the production of fish. The objectives of pond management is to manage the water quality so as to provide a relatively stress free environment that meets the physical, chemical and biological standard for the fishes normal health and production performance.
Within a pond, water quality is a product of
- The quality of the water at the water source
- The quality of the pond soils and immediate environment
- Production technology and management procedures employed, notably those associated with feeding, the maintenance of adequate dissolved oxygen as well as any other chemicals or inputs applied
Most of the dissolved oxygen in non-aerated fish pond is generated as a result oh photosynthesis by phytoplankton (microscopic plants). Some oxygen is also incorporated into the water from the air, especially when the wind blows over the water surface and creates water movement the amount of oxygen needed depends on the kind of fish in the pond. Some fish species survive low oxygen concentration better than others.
During the day, pond water often warm up to temperature higher than that of the inflowing stream. In the tropics, the temperature ranges generally lie within that for production and the significance of temperature on dissolved oxygen level is less significant than that of organic loading on dissolved oxygen.
Constant flow through of water results into a reduction of pond of pond water temperature. The lower the pond water temperature, the less feed the feed will consume and the smaller their growth rate will be the higher the pond water temperature, the lower the solubility of dissolved oxygen in water
Ammonia is the by-product from protein metabolism excreted by fish and bacterial decomposition of organic matter .fish excrete ammonia across the gills. Ammonia is toxic to fish. High levels in water affects ammonia excretion, blood pH, enzyme systems and cause gill damage.
High level of ammonia in water indicate either a poor phytoplankton bloom or a nutrient over load with the pond at levels the normal bacteria in the pond cannot assimilate.
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