please explain the terms; leadership and followership giving their qualities/roles
Leadership and Followership
All social organizations and institutions are made up of people who show or tell members what to do, and people who listen and carry out instructions, so that the goals and objectives of the group can be achieved.
The people, who are in a position to tell members what to do and sometimes how to do it, are the leaders. They direct and guide people. Those who are told what to do and how to do things are the followers. A follower trusts a leader and agrees to follow his example, instructions or advice.
In some organizations a leader maintains his or her position for a long time perhaps several years. Irr other organizations the leadership changes more regularly. Some leaders lay down firm rules and practice for their followers. Others let the followers decide what the whole group should do acting only as advisers.
Means of Becoming a Leader
There are various ways by which a person can become a leader. Some of these means are:
- By Tradition- A person can become a leader through the traditional practices of his people. A member of a royal family can become a ruler by inheriting his father. When the seat of leadership becomes empty as a result of death or any problem facing the incumbent the next person to take over from him should come from the family. When one is not from the Citizenship Education in Nigeria traditional ruling house, one will not be appointed to the seat of power. Leaderships of Emirs, Obas, Obi, Obang, Estu Shehu and Tor Tiv, are examples of traditional leadership.
- Leadership by Election or Legality- In a democratic society . . certain positions are filled up through election process. The adult population of the society votes for the leaders through balloting. This types of leadership is sometimes known as representative government. The leaders are elected by majority votes and given the mandate to lead the people and represent their wishes and views. In Nigeria, this form of government,began in 1954 when Lyttleton’s Constitution laid down the foundation for a democratically elected government to replace the colonial government.Positions that are made through election are those of Head of State, State Governors, Honorable Members of the parliaments and Local Government Councilors. These are positions based on legality i.e, on the law of Nigeria as set put by the constitution.
- Leadership through achievement/Training- Sometimes people are chosen as leaders because of their educational qualifications or through their own hard work. For example, a Director General or Managing Director of a company may, not necessarily be the oldest person in the place where he or she works. He may have educational qualifications, lots of. working experience or both in order to become a leader. Sometimes a person who works hard in trade or business can become a leader. For example, King Jaja of Opobo worked hard as a slave and eventually created his own Empire.
- Leadership by Age- If a person is old, he is shown respect for all the experience that he has. If an older man is also very wise, he may be chosen as a leader. Example, Ndioha among the Owerri Igbo in the past.
- Leadership by Force of Arms- In some cases, leadership particularly national leadership is taken by force of’arms Sometimes leadership is sized through military coups, stage by the country’s armed forces. They do this because they do not agree with the way in which the country is being ruled.
Other times, a particular group within the country, disagreed with the policies of government in control and forms its own. army . and tries to overthrow the government by force. Example of this was’. Lauren Kabila of Democratic Republic of Kongo in 1997. He forced President Mbuto Sesseseko out of office. Major JohnnyKoroma also forced Alhaji Tajan Kabba of Sierra Leone out of Office in the same period. This form of leadership is not constitutionally accepted by any democratic Society. It is an illegitimate leadership mat is uncalled for.
In Nigeria, we had several military coups and eacli was an; attempt to put a stop to poor leadership and corruption as the leaders claimed. Civilians were included in the decision making processes, through their positions as ministers.
The Roles of Followers
Those who follow should try to co-operate with the leader and obey the rules, which allow the leader to carry out the work expected; of him by the group. He should also be loyal to the leader and avoid, any thing that works against the leader. A good follower will one day become a leader.
A follower should also join hands’with other members of the group when work is to be done. In this way, every one will be working towards achieving the goals of the group.
When a leader makes some mistakes, a good follower points them out in a nice manner. In this way, a good leader understands the mistakes and tries to put them right.